不用本金就能赚钱的方法

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现在位置不用本金就能赚钱的方法>技术资料不用本金就能赚钱的方法>行业动态>人物>2016年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖日本科学家大隅良典(Yoshinori Ohsumi)发现了细胞自噬机制

2016年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖日本科学家大隅良典(Yoshinori Ohsumi)发现了细胞自噬机制

科学网2016年10月7日 9:21 点击:2235

Yoshinori Ohsumi

图片来源:东京工业大学网站

Yoshinori Ohsumi今年三月在北京 张宏供图

不用本金就能赚钱的方法BEIJINGSHIJIAN10YUE3RIXIAWU5DIAN30FEN,2016NIANNUOBEIERSHENGLIXUEHUOYIXUEJIANGJIEXIAO,RIBENKEXUEJIADAYULIANGDIAN(Yoshinori Ohsumi)HUOJIANG。HUOJIANGLIYOUSHI“FAXIANLEXIBAOZISHIJIZHI。”

DAYULIANGDIAN,1945NIAN2YUE9RICHUSHENGYURIBENFUGANG。1974NIANCONGDONGJINGDAXUEHUODEBOSHIXUEWEI。1974NIANZHI1977NIAN,TAZAIMEIGUOLUOKEFEILEDAXUEZUOBOHOU,SUIHOUFANHUIRIBEN,RENZHIYUDONGJINGDAXUE。2009NIANQI,WEIDONGJINGGONGYEDAXUEJIAOSHOU。

不用本金就能赚钱的方法JINNIANDENUOBEIERJIANGHUODEZHEFAXIANBINGCHANMINGLEXIBAOZISHIDEJIZHI——ZHEISHIXIBAOCHENGFENJIANGJIEHEXUNHUANLIYONGDEYIGEJIBENGUOCHENG。

不用本金就能赚钱的方法ZISHI(autophagy)YICILAIYUANYUXILAYUauto-,YIWEI“ZIWO”,HEphagein,JI“TUNSHI”。YINCI,autophagyBIANYINSHENWEI“ZISHI”。ZHEIGEDINGYICHUXIANZAISHANGGESHIJI60NIANDAI,DANGSHI,KEYANRENYUANSHOUCIGUANCHADAOXIBAONENGPOHUAIZISHENCHENGFEN,YONGMOJIANGZHEIXIECHENGFENBAOGUO,XINGCHENGDAIZHUANGNANGPAOBINGZHUANYIJIRONGMEITI(lysosome)JINXINGJIANGJIEHUISHOU。CIQIANRENMENDUIXIBAOZISHIGUOCHENGJIHUHAOWULEJIE,YINERXIANGGUANYANJIUYIZHISHIKUNNANZHONGZHONG,ZHIDAOSHANGGESHIJI90NIANDAICHU,DAYULIANGDIANZAIYIXILIESHIYANZHONG,QIAOMIAODILIYONGMIANBAOJIAOMU(baker's yeast)ZHAODAOLEXIBAOZISHISUOXUDEJIYIN。TONGGUOJIXUYANJIU,DAYULIANGDIANCHANMINGLEJIAOMUZISHENNEIZISHIDEJIBENYUANLI,BINGZHENGMINGLEISIDEFUZAJIZHIYECUNZAIYURENTIXIBAONEI。

不用本金就能赚钱的方法DAYULIANGDIANDEFAXIANWEIWOMENLEJIEXIBAOSHIRUHEXUNHUANLIYONGZISHENCHENGFEN,SHULILEXINDIANFAN。TADEFAXIANWEIWOMENLEJIEBINGYISHIDAOXIBAOZISHIZAIJIESHIYING、GANRANFANYINGDENGXUDUOSHENGLIGUOCHENGZHONGDEZHIGUANZHONGYAOXINGKAIPILEXINDAOLU。ZISHIJIYINDETUBIANHUIDAOZHIJIBINGDECHANSHENG,ZISHIGUOCHENGZAIBAOKUOAIZHENGHESHENJINGXINGJIBINGZAINEIDEDUOZHONGTINEIHUANJINGZHONGCHONGDANGDEBUKEHUOQUEDEJIAOSE。

降解——存在于所有活体细胞中的重要功能

SHANGSHIJI50NIANDAI,KEXUEJIAGUANCHADAOYIZHONGTEBIEDEXIBAOWEIJIEGOU(ZHEIZHONGWEIJIEGOUDEXUEMINGYOUJIAOZUO“XIBAOQI”),ZHEIZHONGXIBAOQIHANYOUNENGGOUXIAOHUADANBAIZHI、TANSHUIHUAHEWUHEZHIFANGDEMEI。HOULAIYANJIURENYUANJIANGZHEIZHONGXIBAOQICHENGWEIRONGMEITI,XIANGDANGYUJIANGJIEXIBAOCHENGFENDEGONGZUOZHAN。BILISHIKEXUEJIAChristian de DuveJIUYINWEIFAXIANZHEIZHONGRONGMEITIERHUODE1974NIANNUOBEIERSHENGLIXUEHUOYIXUEJIANG。DAOLE60NIANDAI,KEXUEJIAMENZAIRONGMEITIZHONGYOUSHIKEYIZHAODAODALIANGDEXIBAOZUCHENGWUZHISHENZHISHIWANZHENGDEXIBAOQI。YINCI,KEXUEJIAMENRENWEIXIBAONEICUNZAIZHEYIZHONGGUOCHENG——JIANGXIBAONEIDE“DAXINGHUOWU”SONGDAORONGMEITINEIER。JINYIBUDESHENGHUAHEXIANWEIFENXIYEXIANSHI,YIZHONGXINDENANGPAOHUIJIANGXIBAOCHENGFENDABAOSONGDAORONGMEITICHUJINXINGJIANGJIE(TUYI)。FAXIANRONGMEITIDEChristian de DuveSHIYONGLE“ZISHI”ZHEIGEHECHENGCIMIAOSHUZHEIYIGUOCHENG。ZHEIZHONGNANGPAOZEBEICHENGWEI“ZISHITI”(autophagosome)。

图一:我们的细胞有着各种特别的细胞器。溶酶体就是这样的一种细胞器,它含有各种可以消化细胞成分的酶。细胞内还存在一种被称为“自噬体”的新型囊泡。当自噬体形成时,它会包裹住某些细胞成分,比如那些被破坏的蛋白质和细胞器。最终,它与溶酶体相融合,这些细胞成分便会降解为更小成分。这一过程为细胞的更新提供了养分和构建基础。

在上世纪70到80年代,科研人员将注意力放在了对另一种降解蛋白质的物质即“蛋白酶体”的研究上。在这个研究领域里,就有Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko和Irwin Rose三位科学家因为发现泛素调节蛋白的降解而获得2004年诺贝尔化学奖。蛋白酶体能够有效地先后降解多个蛋白质,不过这种机制并没有解释细胞是如何处理更大的蛋白质复合物和破旧的细胞器的。那么自噬过程能够给出解释吗?如果可以,那其机制又是什么呢?

一个突破性实验

DAYULIANGDIANCENGHUOYUEYUDUOGEYANJIULINGYU,ZAI1988NIANKAISHIJIANLIZIJIDESHIYANSHISHI,TAJIANGYANJIUZHONGDIANFANGZAIYEPAOZHONGDANBAIZHIDEJIANGJIEFANGMIAN。JIAOMUXIBAOXIANGDUIBIJIAORONGYIYANJIU,SUOYIJINGCHANGBEIYONGYURENLEIXIBAOYANJIUMOXING。DUIYUYANJIUZAIFUZAXIBAOTONGLUZHONGJUYOUZHONGYAOZUOYONGDEJIYINLAISHUO,TAMENYOUQIYOUYONG。DANSHIDAYULIANGDIANMIANLINZHEYIGEZHUYAODETIAOZHAN:JIAOMUXIBAOHENXIAO,NEIBUJIEGOUZAIXIANWEIJINGXIAHENNANQUFEN,SUOYITAJIUNANYIQUEDINGJIAOMUXIBAOZHONGSHIFOUCUNZAIZHEZISHIZUOYONG。ZENMEBANNI?TAJIUXIANGZHE,ZAIZISHIGUOCHENGJIHUOSHI,RUGUOTANENGDADUANYEPAOZHONGDEJIANGJIEGUOCHENG,NEIMEZISHITIJIUYINGDANGZAIYEPAOZHONGJUJI,BINGNENGZAIXIANWEIJINGXIAKEJIAN。YUSHITAPEIYANGLEQUEFAYEPAOJIANGJIEMEIDEJIAOMUXIBAO,BINGTONGGUOJIEHUAXIBAOCIJIZISHIZUOYONG。JIEGUOSHIJINGRENDE!JIGEXIAOSHINEI,YEPAONEIJIUCHONGMANLEWEIBEIJIANGJIEDEXIAONANGPAO(TUER).ZHEIXIEXIAONANGPAOJIUSHIZISHITI,DAYULIANGDIANDESHIYANZHENGMINGLEZISHICUNZAIYUJIAOMUXIBAOZHONG。GENGZHONGYAODESHI,TAXIANZAINENGGOUJIANBIECANYUZHEIYIGONGCHENGDEGUANJIANJIYINLE。ZHEISHIYIXIANGZHONGDADETUPO,DAYULIANGDIANYU1992NIANFABIAOLEZHEIXIANGJIEGUO。

图二:在酵母中(图左),液泡相当于哺乳动物细胞中的溶酶体。大隅良典培育了缺乏液泡降解酶的酵母细胞。当这些细胞饥饿时,自噬体就会快速聚集在液泡中(图中)。他的实验证明了自噬存在于酵母细胞。下一步,大隅良典研究了数千种变异酵母细胞(图右),并鉴别出了15个对自噬至关重要的基因。

自噬基因被发现

DAYULIANGDIANLIYONGGAIZAOGUODEJIAOMUJUNZHU,QIZHONGTUNSHITIYINJIEERJUJI。RUGUOZISHIZHONGYAOJIYINSHIHUO,ZHEIZHONGJUJIBUYINGGAIFASHENG。DAYULIANGDIANJIANGJIAOMUXIBAOBAOLUYUYIZHONGHUAXUEWUZHI,KESUIJIZAIXUDUOJIYINZHONGYOUFATUBIAN,SUIHOUTAYOUDAOZISHI。TADECELVECHENGGONGLE!ZAIFAXIANJIAOMUZISHIYINIANNEI,TAJIUJIANBIECHULEDIYIGEDUIYUZISHIZHIGUANZHONGYAODEJIYIN。TASUIHOUDEYIXILIEJINGQIAODEYANJIUFAXIAN,YOUZHEIXIEJIYINBIANMADEDANBAIJUYOUGONGNENGXING。ZHEIXIEJIEGUOXIANSHI,ZISHIYOUYIZUDANBAIHEDANBAIFUHETIDIAOKONG,GEZIDIAOJIEZISHITIXINGCHENGDEBUTONGJIEDUAN。(TUSAN)

图三:大隅良典研究了由关键自噬基因编码的蛋白的功能。他勾画了压力信号如何发动自噬,以及蛋白和蛋白复合体促进不同阶段自噬体形成的机制。

细胞自噬——细胞中的关键机制

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不用本金就能赚钱的方法GANXIEDAYULIANGDIANHEQITAGENJINYANJIUDEREN,WOMENXIANZAIZHIDAOZISHIDIAOKONGZHONGYAODESHENGLIGONGNENG,YIBIANXIBAOZUJIANDEYIJIANGJIEHEXUNHUAN。ZISHINENGGOUKUAISUTIGONGNENGLIANGRANLIAO,JIWEIXIBAOZUJIANGENGXINTIGONGCAILIAO,CONGERDUIXIBAOXIANGYINGJIEHUOQITAYINGJIZHIGUANZHONGYAO。ZAIGANRANHOU,ZISHINENGGOUQINGCHURUQINDEBAONEIXIJUNHEBINGDU。ZISHIDUIYUPEITAIFAYUHEXIBAOFENHUAYEFAHUIZUOYONG。XIBAOHAILIYONGZISHIQINGCHUSHOUSUNDANBAIHEXIBAOQI,ZHEISHIYIZHONGZHILIANGKONGZHIJIZHI,DUIYUDIXIAOSHUAILAODAILAIDEFUZUOYONGZHIGUANZHONGYAO。

不用本金就能赚钱的方法ZHONGDUANDEZISHIZUOYONGYIBEIRENWEIYUPAJINSENZHENG、2XINGTANGNIAOBINGJIQITALAONIANYIHUANBINGXIANGGUAN。ZISHIJIYINDEBIANYINENGDAOZHIJIYINJIBING。GANRAOZISHIZUOYONGBEIRENWEIYUAIZHENGXIANGGUAN。MUQIANXIANGGUANYANJIUZHENGZAIJINMIZHANKAI,YIQIKAIFAXIANGGUANYAOWUNENGZAIDUOZHONGJIBINGZHONGBIAOBAZISHIZUOYONG。

SUIRANZISHIZUOYONGYIWEIRENSUOZHICHAOGUO50NIAN,DANZHIDAODAYULIANGDIANSHANGSHIJI90NIANDAIDIANFUXINGDEYANJIUZHIHOU,TADEZHONGYAOZUOYONGCAIDEDAOQUEREN。YINWEIZHEIYIGONGXIAN,DAYULIANGDIANBEISHOUYUJINNIANDENUOBEIERSHENGLIXUEHUOYIXUEJIANG。

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(来源: 科学网 )


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